From the first days of the summer of 2009, Iran sank under a curtain of dust with the appearance of an unpleasant phenomenon called fine dust. Dust particles are dry and airborne particles that contain dust and smoke and give the sky a foggy appearance. The sources of dust are industrial and factory pollutants, car traffic, forest fires, desert expansion, plowing the land in dry climates, and so on. The dust phenomenon usually covers a thickness of less than one kilometer, but the dust storm in the summer of 2009 passed through the high mountains of Zagros and even the soaring Alborz Mountain range and affected the shores of the Caspian Sea in Gilan and has been for years. Iran faces this phenomenon every summer.
In Iran, the main source of fine dust is the drying deserts and swamps of Iraq, whose soil and sand come to Iran through the north wind. This wind lasts from June to September and is formed from the northwest of the Middle East and goes to the Persian Gulf and reaches the surface of open waters. The three countries of Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia jointly sprayed all the lands in a certain season of the year. Mulch is a sticky petroleum product that is used to stabilize quicksand in desert areas. The Iraq war has caused this to be forgotten, resulting in an increase in dust storms in Khuzestan, western Iran, and eventually in almost all of Iran. Heating and warming the whole area, destroying plants and living organisms, high cost, the need for advanced technology and difficult preparation steps, seems more and more necessary.